- Publication date : 2018-08-04
Boutin A, Demers S, Gasse C, Giguère Y, Tétu A, Laforest G, Bujold E. First Trimester Screening for Fetal Aneuploidies Using Placental Growth Factor: The Great Obstetrical Syndrome (GOS) Study. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2018 Aug;40(8):1044-1049. doi: 10.1016/j.jogc.2017.11.032. PubMed PMID: 30103877.
This study sought to estimate the ability of first trimester maternal serum placental growth factor (PlGF) to identify fetal aneuploidies.
A prospective cohort study of singleton pregnancy at 11 to 13 weeks was conducted. Maternal serum PlGF concentration was measured using BRAHMS PlGF plus KRYPTOR automated assays (Thermo Scientific BRAHMS, Hennigsdorf, Germany). PlGF and nuchal translucency were log-transformed and reported as multiples of the median (MoM) adjusted for crown-rump length. Detection rates were calculated using receiver-operator characteristic curves.
The study observed 21 cases of fetal aneuploidies (0.4%) out of 4765 participants. Trisomy 21 (13 cases; 0.85 MoM; interquartile range [IQR] 0.80-0.93), trisomy 18 (two cases; 0.77 MoM; IQR 0.66-0.87) and trisomy 13 (two cases; 0.68 MoM; IQR 0.61-0.75) were associated with low PlGF concentrations. The low PlGF values observed in the cases of monosomy X (two cases; 0.85 MoM; IQR 0.82-0.88, P = 0.05), triploidy (0.78 MoM, P = 0.11), and 47,XX,i(22)(p10) (0.18 MoM, P = 0.08) were not statistically different from the controls. A model including maternal age, nuchal translucency, and PlGF could have identified all (95% CI 83%-100%) cases of trisomy 21 and six of the other fetal aneuploidies (75%) at a false-positive rate of 9%.
Low first trimester PlGF is associated with an increased risk of fetal aneuploidy. PlGF combined with first trimester ultrasound (nuchal translucency, uterine artery Doppler, and early fetal anatomy) could identify not only women at high risk for preeclampsia, but also fetuses at high risk of aneuploidy for optimal further testing (non-invasive testing for common aneuploidy screening or chorionic villus sampling for full screening and diagnosis).