- Publication date : 2018-04-25
He H, Nuyt AM, Luo ZC, Audibert F, Dubois L, Wei SQ, Abenhaim HA, Bujold E, Marc I, Julien P, Fraser WD; 3D Study Group. Maternal Circulating Placental Growth Factor and Neonatal Metabolic Health Biomarkers in Small for Gestational Age Infants. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2018 Apr 25;9:198. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2018.00198. eCollection 2018. PubMed PMID: 29922227; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5996905.
Small for gestational age (SGA) infants are at increased risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. It is unknown whether any prenatal biomarkers are helpful for identifying SGA infants with altered metabolic health profile at birth or later life. In a nested study of 162 SGA (birth weight < 10th percentile) and 161 optimal birth weight (25th-75th percentiles) control infants in the 3D (design, develop and discover) birth cohort in Canada, we assessed whether maternal circulating placental growth factor (PlGF), a biomarker of placental function, is associated with metabolic health biomarkers in SGA infants. Main outcomes were cord plasma insulin, proinsulin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), leptin, and high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin concentrations. Maternal PlGF concentrations at 32-35 weeks of gestation were substantially lower in SGA versus control infants (P < 0.001), so as were cord plasma proinsulin (P = 0.005), IGF-I (P < 0.001), leptin (P < 0.001), and HMW adiponectin (P = 0.002) concentrations. In SGA infants with both low (<25th percentile) and normal maternal PlGF concentrations, cord plasma IGF-I and leptin concentrations were lower than control infants, but the decreases were to a greater extent in SGA infants with low maternal PlGF. Cord blood leptin levels were lower comparing SGA infants with low vs. normal maternal PlGF levels (P = 0.01). SGA infants with low maternal circulating PlGF levels at late gestation were characterized by greater decreases in cord blood IGF-I and leptin concentrations. Maternal circulating PlGF appears to be associated with neonatal metabolic health profile in SGA infants.