- Publication date : 2016-05-22
Soucy-Giguère L, Tétu A, Gauthier S, Morand M, Chandad F, Giguère Y, Bujold E. Periodontal Disease and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: A Prospective Study in a Low-Risk Population. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2016;38:346-50. doi: 10.1016/j.jogc.2016.02.012. PubMed PMID: 27208603.
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Periodontal disease has been associated with systemic inflammation and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preeclampsia and preterm birth.To examine the relationship between periodontal disease in early pregnancy and the risk of amniotic inflammation, preterm birth, and preeclampsia.We performed a prospective cohort study of women undergoing amniocentesis for fetal karyotype between 15 and 24 weeks' gestation. Participants underwent periodontal examination by a certified dentist, and a sample of amniotic fluid was collected. Periodontal disease was defined as the presence of one or more sites with probing depths ≥ 4 mm and ≥ 10% bleeding on probing. Matrix metalloproteinase-8 and interleukin-6 concentrations in the amniotic fluid were measured. Medical charts were reviewed for perinatal outcomes. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes.We recruited 273 women at a median gestational age of 16 weeks (range 15 to 24), and 258 (95%) agreed to undergo periodontal examination. Periodontal disease was observed in 117 of the participants (45%). We observed no significant association between periodontal disease and preterm birth (relative risk [RR] 2.27; 95% CI 0.74 to 6.96) or spontaneous preterm birth (RR 0.90; 95% CI 0.20 to 4.11). However, women with periodontal disease were more likely to develop preeclampsia, and this association remained significant after adjustment for potential confounders (adjusted RR 5.89; 95% CI 1.24 to 28.05). Periodontal disease was not associated with significant differences in the intra-amniotic concentration of matrix metalloproteinase-8 (13.0 ± 46.6 vs 5.7 ± 10.4 ng/mL, P = 0.098) or interleukin-6 (3.3 ± 20.3 vs 1.0 ± 1.6 ng/mL, P = 0.23), although a non-significant trend was observed.Periodontal disease is associated with preeclampsia but not with spontaneous preterm birth. The current study cannot exclude an association between periodontal disease and intra-amniotic inflammation.