- Date de publication : 2012-08-15
Giguère Y, Charland M, Thériault S, Bujold E, Laroche M, Rousseau F, Lafond J, Forest JC. Linking preeclampsia and cardiovascular disease later in life. Clin. Chem. Lab. Med. 2012;50:985-93. doi: 10.1515/CCLM.2011.764. PubMed PMID: 22107134.
cardiovascular diseases female genetic linkage humans pre-eclampsia pregnancy risk factors
Preeclampsia (PE), which is defined as new onset hypertension after 20 weeks of pregnancy accompanied by proteinuria, is characterized by inadequate placentation, oxidative stress, inflammation and widespread endothelial dysfunction. A link between PE and long-term risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) was suggested by retrospective studies, which found that PE was associated with a 2–3-fold risk of CVD later in life, with a 5–7-fold risk in the case of severe and/or early-onset PE. Recently, meta-analyses and prospective studies have confirmed the association between PE and the emergence of an unfavorable CVD risk profile, in particular a 3–5-fold increased prevalence of the metabolic syndrome only 8 years after the index pregnancy. PE and CVD share many risk factors, including obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, hypercoagulability, insulin resistance and both entities are characterized by endothelial dysfunction. PE and CVD are complex traits sharing common risk factors and pathophysiological processes, but the genetic link between both remains to be elucidated. However, recent evidence suggests that genetic determinants associated with the metabolic syndrome, inflammation and subsequent endothelial dysfunction are involved. As the evidence now supports that PE represents a risk factor for the emergence of the metabolic syndrome and CVD later in life, the importance of long-term follow-up assessment of CVD risk beginning early in women with a history of PE must be considered and translated into new preventive measures.